This post is the second part (and final) about how to install Bonobo Git Server under Windows 7 over HTTPS with Windows authentication. In this post I will explain how to connect and download a project as user. As prerequisite, you need an already installed and configured Git server, see my previous post.
Create your user at the server and check permissions
- Open your web browser and type:
- As explained when installing the server, the Git server uses a self-signed certificate for secure transfer protocol (HTTPS) that can not be validated. This kind of certificates are ONLY acceptable for intranet pourposes (never for public servers). Your web browser will show an error screen about not being able to validate the identity of the SSL certificate owner (that is the Git server administrator). You must add a permanent exception to access the Git server web page.
- You will be prompted to enter your user and password. Use your windows domain user and password:
- Once you are logged in for the first time, nothing will be available to your user. The reason is that you do not have any permissions, associated repositories or groups. The administrator of the Git server has to set up your account. However, this test has three objectives. First, you have checked the availability of the server to your computer. Second, this first log in has created you account. Finally, if you click on your user name (top right corner), you can edit your user information. You should take a few seconds to enter valid information: real name and surname, and your e-mail account, since this data will be used to store your credentials while pushing to repositories.
- Download (and install) the latest version of Git at:
- Click next on every screen. If you don’t want to pollute your context menu, be sure to uncheck “Windows Explorer Integration” at the program features screen.
- If you are really brave ;), use the Git Bash console to work with the repositories. Otherwise, install a user-friendly GUI client as explained below. I usually use both, each one has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Install a Git Client with graphical user interface
There are several Git clients with GUI, see here. I recommend you to use SmartGit/Hg for non-commercial projects, because it is free, frequently updated, and plenty of features.
- Install the Java Runtime Environment 8 update 25 (or higher). You can download it from here. I recommend to install both x86 (32 bits) and x64 (64 bits) versions under a 64 bits Windows operative system.
- Download SmartGit. Choose the “Installer without JRE”, since you have already installed Java in the previous step.
Creating the folder for cloning a repository
- As explained before in step 1, the Git server uses a self-signed certificate. SmartGit or any other client will complain about not being able to validate the identity of the server. Therefore, it is mandatory to disable SSL validation for each new repository manually. A bare “git clone” command will not work.
- Create a new directory called <project_name> anywhere on your hard drive. The repository will be cloned inside.
- Create a file named “gitclone.sh”. Edit the file and copy the code at the end of of this post. Copy “gitclone.sh” to the previously created folder.
- Open Git Bash and browse to that folder (with linux-like commands ‘cd’ and ‘ls’). If you selected during the installation shell integration, right-Click on the new directory and select “Git Bash Here”.
- Once Git Bash is inside the folder, type in the terminal:
gitclone <project_name> <your_domain_user_name>
and hit enter.
- In SmartGit, open the existing local repository (Repository -> Add or Create), and click the Pull button.
- If you are able to successfully open the project an pull the repository, remove the “gitclone.sh” file, which is no longer needed.
- Always use your Windows credentials (user and password), following username scheme: DOMAIN\<username> for pulling and pushing to the server.
It is advisable to take a look at some online tutorials to grasp the surface of what can be done with Git. You may start with these ones:
echo -e "usage:\t\tgitclone <git_project_name> <your_windows_login_username>"
echo -e "example:\tgitclone MyProject xmellado"
if [ $# -eq 0 ]; then
echo "Your command line does not contain arguments. Two arguments are expected."
elif [ $# -eq 1 ]; then
echo "Your command line contains $# argument. Two arguments are expected."
elif [ $# -gt 2 ]; then
echo "Your command line contains $# arguments. Only two arguments are expected."
echo "Initializing empty Git repository"
echo "Disabling SSL verification since the Git server uses a self-signed certificate"
git config http.sslVerify false
echo "Adding the remote server"
git remote add origin https://<your_domain>\\$GIT_USER_NAME@<server_IP>/Bonobo.Git.Server/$GIT_PROJECT_NAME.git
echo "Increasing buffer size for large transfer operations (maximum 512 MB)"
git config http.postBuffer 524288000
echo "Pulling files from remote server"
git pull origin master
echo "Set local master branch to track origin/master branch"
git branch -u origin/master
If you have at work, or at home, a Windows domain and you want to install your own Git server, Bonobo Git Server may be your choice, since it is easy to install, configure and administrate. I chose this Git server implementation at work, because it allowed us to use our Windows domain users and passwords without the need for creating new ones specially for the source control management tool.
Bonobo Git Server has a decent documentation, FAQ, and forum to help you while installing this software. I will include some steps from the installation guide, from the FAQ and I will add a few new steps for using HTTPS as communication protocol. Let’s start:
- Get the Bonobo Git Server from its website.
- Go to the installation guide and make sure that you have all the prerequisites properly installed and configured. In this case under Windows 7:
- Install IIS 7 on Windows Vista and Windows 7. When installing IIS7, leave the default options.
- .NET Framework 4.5. Install it using Windows Update.
- ASP.NET MVC 4. Install it using the standalone installer and don’t forget to register MVC framework with your IIS as explained in the prerequisite webpage:
- Windows 7. Following the same procedure that you used to install IIS 7, add the ASP.NET feature. IIS -> WWWS -> Application Development Features -> ASP.NET 4.5.
- Run from the command line with administrator privileges “%windir%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\aspnet_regiis.exe -ir”.
- Now, install Bonobo Git Server following its instructions.
- To open IIS Manager, click Start, type “inetmgr” in the Search Programs and Files box, and then press ENTER.
- When converting the Bonobo Git Server into and application select as application pool: ASP.NET 4.0.
- Restart the computer and check that http://localhost/Bonobo.Git.Server is accessible.
- Now follow the Bonobo Git Server Windows Authentication instructions.
- In order to complete the section “How to configure IIS?”. Enable Windows and basic authentication. The complete path for Windows 7 and 8 is:
Programs and Features
Turn Windows Features on or off
Expand: Internet Information Services => World Wide Web Services => Security
Select “Basic Authentication”
Select “Windows Authentication”
- Restart the computer.
- Follow the “How to configure IIS?” instructions.
- Test the interface website works with HTTP.
- If the webpage does not show images, follow the FAQ answers for “Bonobo Git Server doesn’t server CSS”.
- Once the first user, which will be the administrator, is logged in at the interface webpage, set:
<add key=”ShouldImportWindowsUserAsAdministrator” value=”false” />
in both, server and interface, to avoid that any new user will gain administrator privileges.
- If you want to secure your connection with HTTPS:
- Go to the ISS Manager and create a SSL certificate as explained in How to Set Up SSL on IIS 7 The Official Microsoft IIS Site. Section “IIS Manager” -> “Obtain a Certificate”.
- Launch “Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager” (execute inetmgr) -> Select the Server field -> Server Certificates.
- Create Self-Signed Certificate. Use a descriptive name like “Git SSL certificate”.
- Create an SSL Binding:
- Select the “Default Web Site” and click on “Bindings”.
- Select “https” and your self-signed certificate at the bottom of the dialog.
- The result should look like this:
- Require SSL for the Bonobo Git applications.
- Select the Bonobo Git Server application in IIS7.
- Click on SSL Certificates, requiere SSL and accept client certificates.
- Click on apply (top right corner).
- Do the same for the Bonobo Git Interface application.
- Restart and you should be able to access the main Bonobo Git webpage with HTTP and HTTPS.
- Self-signed certificates can not be validated and are ONLY acceptable for intranet purposes (never for public servers, since man in the middle attacks may happen). Git bash or any other client will complain (for example, see SmartGit SSL Certificate Problem). The solution is to disable SSL validation for each new repository manually. I know, it is a bit painful.
- Create a new directory called <project_name>
- Open Git Bash and browse to that folder or right-Click on the new directory and select “Git Bash Here”.
- Enter the following command lines:
git config http.sslVerify false
git remote add origin https://<server_IP_address>/Bonobo.Git.Server/<git_project_name>.git
git config http.postBuffer 524288000 (see point 10)
Alternatively, you can use a small script to make this process faster, a bit better, and easier. Please, take a look at the user side post.
- To avoid crashes while making “big” pushes. Execute:
git config http.postBuffer 524288000
at the client side folder with Git Bash. See Bonobo Git Server FAQ. Apply all the changes in the section Cloning Error – RPC failed.
- For uploading and downloading big chunks of data over SSL, you need to change (increase) your “uploadReadAheadSize”:
- Launch “Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager” (execute inetmgr)
- Expand the Server field -> Expand Sites -> Select the site you want to make the modification for (Bonobo.Git.Server).
- In the Features section, double click “Configuration Editor”
- Under “Section” select: system.webServer/serverRuntime
- Modify the “uploadReadAheadSize” section (“The value must be between 0 and 2147483647.”). Set it to 2147483647 (2GB).
- Click Apply and restart the web site.
- Finally, it is mandatory to open the HTTPS port (443) in the windows firewall for allowing the connection of other computers to the Git Server. Open the Control Panel -> System and Security -> Windows Firewall, click Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall and scroll down to “Secure World Wide Web services (HTTPS)” and check Domain and/or Home network (the most restrictive that works).
- Under Windows 7, there is a bug in IIS7 regarding SSL. Install Windows 7 patch KB2634328, or you will not be able to push/pull big files over HTTPS. See Bonobo Git Server FAQ.
- Change repository location. As a general policy, I always save data in other partition than “C:”. Go to the Bonobo Git Server Interface, login and click on settings.
- Change the repository location.
- Make sure ISS_ISURS have read/write/modify access to the new folder. See Bonobo Git Server FAQ.
- If you have old repositories, place them inside the repository directory and restart the Git server. They will be discovered next time the application starts.
- When login with your Windows user, it may not work. Try to access the web interface with your credentials. If you are successful, use them to push and clone. If the credentials don’t work, try the following username scheme: DOMAIN\username or username@DOMAIN, and note that DOMAIN is not the name of your git server instance, but your intranet/Windows/ActiveDirectory domain. See Ad Authentication and Push.
When one of the following error messages is shown after executing an application:
- The application was unable to start correctly (0xc<7 hexadecinal digits>). Click OK to terminate the application.
- The application failed to initialize properly (0xc<7 hexadecinal digits>). Click OK to terminate the application.
there is no information about what is the real problem. It may get more mystic if you are developing the application. You will try to debug it without success, since the same error will appear in Visual Studio, or any other IDE, and the first line of code in your main function is not reached. The application really can’t start.
This error usually means that a shared library (dll) is missing. If the missing shared library is a direct (first level) dependency, the error is different and informative (The program can’t start because XXXXXX.dll is missing from your computer). However, if a shared library calls another shared library, the former and obscure error will be displayed instead.
The solution: download the Dependency Walker application, and run it with your application executable to find the missing shared library file name. Once you know the file name, google it, find and download the prerequisite that contains the library, and install it.
Take into account that:
- The shared library version matters. If you install a different prerequisite version than the one originally used for compiling the calling shared library, the error may be still thrown. Therefore, you may try more than one version until you find the right one.
- Do not download single dll files from untrusted sites, since there is no guarantee that those files are untouched.
Real case scenario: your application uses some third-party shared libraries as black boxes (you don’t have the source code). Someone updates one of these third-party libraries at the common repository, and the updated library has a new dependency. When you update your local copy, compile and execute, you will find the error.
P.S.: In Spanish, the errors are translated as “La aplicación no se ha podido inicializar correctamente (0xc<7 dígitos hexadecimales>)” and “El programa no puede iniciarse porque falta XXXXXX.dll en el equipo”.
Update (2014/01/15): It seems that Microsoft has fixed the update service problem and these steps are no longer needed.
If you have recently (since October of 2013) tried to perform a fresh installation of Windows XP SP3, you may have found that updating Windows, after the final boot, seems to take forever, while one of your CPU cores is 100% busy due to a svchost.exe process at full throttle. This issue has been discussed many times all over Internet, but I found that some solutions did not work for me, and the one that worked was not clearly explained. For the latter reason, I decided to share what I have learned struggling with this problem for two days. Here we go:
- You may start reading about this problem in this post.
- Windows XP SP3 comes with Internet Explorer (IE) 6, but IE8 and its offline installer is needed for solving the problem. You should check that the installer matches your operative system language.
- Perform a fresh Windows XP SP3 installation. When you are asked about automatic updates, disable them. I will assume that a user with administrator privileges is used to perform any of the following steps.
- Verify that you are connected to the Internet. If not, install network adapter drivers, and configure your network.
- Before you proceed with the installation of IE8: a) enable automatic updates “notify but do not download” option, b) disable the automatic update service. For disabling automatic updates, execute the command line net stop “Automatic Updates” or, alternatively, go to Start -> Control Panel -> Administrative Tools -> Services and disable the automatic update service. Do not restart, or the service will be up and running again.
- Run the IE8 installer (“IE8-WindowsXP-x86-ENU.exe” for English language) and check that the download updates option is on. It should take a while to download the updates and install everything. If the automatic update service is running while IE8 is downloading its patches, the problem will arise and it will take forever to install the browser.
Hopefully, after all these steps, you will see again the yellow shield in the task bar and you will be able to use the Windows Update service through IE8 without problems.
NOTE: Bear in mind that support for Windows XP ends on April 8, 2014.
I want to develop a very simple licensing system. I decided to use Crypto++ v5.6.2 for generating public and private keys, cypher and decipher files. This library is build under Windows with Visual Studio and its solution files, but my project is using CMake for generating these solution files. Therefore, either I can write some CMake files for compiling Crypto++ or I can compile it and move the resulting files to my environment, using CMake to collect and include them in my solution. The latter is the approach that I have chosen with some libraries, since it is usually really difficult to write CMake files for building a library that you have not develop.
These are the steps I followed:
- Read Readme.txt at the root folder inside the zip file, and pay attention to the MSVC section. The cryplib project is the full static library project.
- I am using Ogre and other projects that force me to use shared C++ run-time libraries. Criptop++ use static C++ run-time libraries by default. As I explained in other posts, make sure that this setting is consistent across all your dependencies. Therefore, go to the cryplib Project Properties -> C/C++ -> Code Generation and switch from Multi-threaded to Multi-threaded DLL, in debug /MTd to /MDd and in release /MT to /MD.
- Ogre also uses multi-byte character set, so switch for all configurations General -> Character Set to Use Multi-Byte Character Set.
- Make sure Code Generation -> Enable Enhanced Instruction Set is set to /arch:SSE2 in release and debug.
- Following the same philosophy than Ogre and other libraries, I will build release and debug libraries with different names, in order to make it easier to add them by hand in my CMake project files. Switch to the debug configuration and find Target Name property at General, change its value to $(ProjectName)_d. It is advisable to rename the *.pdb files with the same name than the target name, so go to C/C++ -> Output files and and change its value to $(OutDir)$(TargetName).pdb.
- I will create another configuration for compiling in release mode with debugging information. Click on the Configuration Manager button. Unfold the Active Solution Configuration list, and select <New>. Then, choose in Copy settings from the release configuration, and use the CMake name for this kind of build RelWithDebInfo. Once the new configuration has been created, I recommend to save, close the IDE, and open it again. Now, make sure the release configuration does not include debugging information. C/C++ -> Debug Information Format should be empty, and this property in RelWithDebInfo configuration should be set to Program Database /Zi. Lastly, disable any optimization by setting C/C++ -> Optimization -> Optimization to Disabled (/Od).
- I do not want the whole program optimization, because other libraries do not use it, and some warnings or errors may happen when the final linking of my application is done. Hence, go to General -> Whole Program Optimization and set No Whole Program Optimization in release and RelWithDebInfo configurations. Besides, in Librarian -> Link Time Code Generation set it to No. Deactivation of /LTGC optimization flag must be done in both places, when compiling and when linking.
Finally, you are ready to compile and include the final results in your project. I created a new folder called Cryptopp with two folders: lib for the binaries and include for the header files. In my CMake files, ExternalDependencies.cmake contains the path to the include and binary folders, and the name of the libraries for the debug and release configurations, such as:
If you are gonna use stencil shadows in Ogre, you should carefully read the manual page about this shadowing technique, and be sure to fully understand what is explained there. Besides, you can find some useful hints and tips regarding this topic that I have discovered while adding shadows to my scenes.
- Any object (mesh) casting shadows must contain an edge list, which can be generated either when exporting the mesh in Blender (or any other modelling tool) or calling Mesh::buildEdgeList before the mesh is used in run-time. If you are using Blender, make sure that the option Edge Lists is enabled when exporting your model (like I explained in a previous post).
Edge Lists option when exporting.
- Current Ogre release (v1.8.1) has a bug when computing stencil shadows if a light source is placed inside an object. Read this thread. Solutions: a) do not place a light source inside an object (with edge list), b) apply the patch posted in the previous thread to your Ogre sources (this patch will be included in the next maintenance release), c) consider switching to the texture shadows technique.
- Stencil shadows project the object geometry. The shadow caster class (OgreShadowCaster) has a 16-bit index limit on the number of vertexes. This limit will only be shown to the user in debug mode with an assert. In release mode, this limit will not trigger anything, but shadows will not work properly. In addition, the performance may be seriously penalized, if big meshes are used with this technique due to the geometry projection. Therefore, if shadows do not work properly, make sure none of your meshes exceeds the 16-bit limit executing in debug mode. If this requirement is not meet, you can split the mesh in different pieces (that will help Ogre to cull non visible parts), or reduce the number of vertexes.
This are the Blender interface controls and shortcuts that, so far, I have been using the most. I will update this list as soon as I find useful shortcuts for my tasks. Please, you should refer to the official blender manual for details. Useful direct links:
- LMB: left mouse button.
- MMB: middle mouse button.
- RMB: right mouse button.
- MW: mouse wheel.
- MM: mouse motion.
- A: select/unselect all.
- R: rotate. +X, +Y or +Z rotation on the respective axis. The rotation degrees may be typed and accepted with ENTER.
- S: scale. +X, +Y or +Z scale on the respective axis. The scaling factor may be typed and accepted with ENTER.
- G: translate.
- CTRL+L: invert selection.
3D View > Edit mode
- CTRL+E: edge menu.
- U: unwrap menu.
- ALT+M: merge vertices menu.
These controls depend on the active selection mode (vertices, edges or faces).
- ALT+RMB: loop selection.
- SHIFT+RMB: add/remove an element to the current selection.
- CTRL+LMB+MM: selection based on the shape created with the mouse motion.
3D View > Object mode
- MMB+MM: scene rotation.
- SHIFT + MMB: pan scene.
- MW: discrete zoom in/out.
- CTRL+MMB+MM: continuous zoom in/out.
- CTRL+A: apply transformations to the geometry.
- MMB+MM: pan image.
- MW: discrete zoom in/out.
- CTRL+MMB+MM: continuous zoom in/out.
- RMB: Move camera/light.
- ALT+A: Add light.
- Trick: First click on the camera/light, then on the object holding SHIFT (the order is very important). Do a CTRL+T and select TrackTo Constraint.